Partition of Bengal

19 July 1905 : Announcement by lord Curzon.
07 August 1905 : Resolution of boycott passed in the Town Hall of Calcutta.
16 October 1905 : Partition of Bengal in effect.

The population of Bengal at the time of partition was 7 crore 85 lakh, at that time Bihar and Orissa were included in Bengal. Assam was separated from Bengal in 1874 (governor was Lord Mayo). Lord Curzon gave the reason of administration inconvenience for the partition of Bengal but in reality the reason was political. Bengal at that time was the focal point of national movements and Bengali's had strong political awareness, to curb which Curzon tried to partition Bengal.
On 19 July 1905, decision of partition was declared. On 07 August 1905 at historical meeting at Townhall of Calcutta, the Swadeshi movement was declared and the historical boycott movement was passed. On 01 September 1905, government declared that partition of Bengal would be effected from 16 October 1905.
On 16 October 1905, Bengal was divided into East and West Bengal. East Bengal included Assam, Rajsahi, Chittagong and Dhaka and Dhaka was made its capital, the population was 3 crore and 10 lakh (Muslims: 1 crore and 80 lakh). West Bengal included Bihar, Orissa and Calcutta and Calcutta was made its capital, the population was 5 crore and 40 lakh (Muslims: 90 lakh).
On 16th October, black day/sorrow day was observed throughout Bengal. The declaration of partition of Bengal created such a strong political storm that it brought people and political leaders of different view on same platform. Vande Matram became national song overnight and became mantra for national movement. S.N. Bannerjee emerged as a major leader in anti partition movement. At this time Rabindra Nath Tagore wrote 'Rakhi Sangeet' and 'Amar Sonar Bangla'. 16th October was observed as Raksha Bandhan Day.

Important Extemists Leaders

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadgar Tilak (1856-1920) : known as the father of extremism/radicalism. Born on 23rd July 1856. He founded 'Puna New School' and was also associated with Deccan Educational Society and Ferguson College. He was a staunch follower of Hindu religion. culture and civilization. He organized 'Akhada' and 'Laathi' club to make youth brave and bold. He published the following newspapers: Maratha in English and Kesari in Marathi. He also wrote two well known books: Gita Rahasya and The Arctic Home of Aryans. Tilak started two festivals: Ganesh Utsav and Shivaji Utsav. He died on 1st August 1920.
Tilak was regarded 'father of Indian unrest' by Valentine Cherol.
'Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it'-Tilak in Lucknow session in 1916.

Lala Lajpat Rai
Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928) : Joined congress in 1888. In 1914, went to America and joined 'Gadar Party' (founded by Lala Har Dayal). He published  a newspaper 'Young India'. In 1920, was made president of Calcutta Congress special session. He co operated with Gandhi in Non Co operation Movement but opposed educational boycott. In 1928, when Simon commission reached Lahore, he opposed, he was assaulted in lathi charge in which he died. He established DAV college at Lahore. He is also known as 'Punjab Kesari' and 'Lion of Punjab'.
On his death, Gandhi said,'Lalaji cant die so long as the Sun and Moon shines on Indian sky'.

Bipin Chandra Pal
Bipin Chandra Pal : Born on 7th September 1858, Assam, was a member  of Brahmo Samaj. His father was strong supporter of Hinduism. He joined congress in 1897. In the beginning he was the supporter of Moderates but later he became Extremist, after the partition of Bengal. He was not in favor of Non Cooperation Movement of Gandhi in 1920.

Difference between Moderates and Extremists Congress

The Moderates wanted to achieve self government , they did not aim for total independence. They demanded certain reforms and concessions from British government because they wanted to develop India under the guidance of benevolent British rule. On the other hand, Extremists wanted Swaraj ie, complete independence.
Moderates were loyal to British rule and English crown. They considered British rule a gift for India. The Extremists were not loyal to British rule and they considered it as a curse and wanted to uproot it from India.
'Swaraj is better than best form of foreign rule'-Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
The moderates believed in adopting constitutional and peaceful method to achieve their objective. They had full faith in British sense of justice.Extremists believed in non co operation and adopted method of boycott against foreign goods and propagation of swadeshi and national education. They believed in Indian culture, civilization, religion and tradition. Whereas Moderates believed in British culture.
Moderates believed that Indians were not fit to rule. Under the moderates, national movement was not a popular movement, it had no touch with people. While under extremists, people came under them.

Important leaders of Moderate Congress

Dadabhai Naoroji
Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917): aslo known as 'Grand old man of India. He became member of Bombay  Corporation in 1885 and president of Indian National Congress in 1886.He became member of British parliament in 1892. He became president of Indian National Congress thrice.

Pherozshah Mehta
Pherozshah Shah Mehta (1845-1915): was a renowned lawyer. In 1872, became member of Bombay corporation. In 1886, became member of legislative assembly. In 1890, became president of Indian National Congress. He regarded British government as symbol of progress and divine gift to India

Surendra Nath Bannerjee
Surendra Nath Bannerjee (1848-1925): founded Indian Association in 1876 at  Calcutta. He edited a magazine named 'Bengali'. He launched ICS movement. He did not supported 'Non Co operation Movement' by Mahatama Gandhi in 1921 and for that he was awarded the title of 'Sir' (Knighthood) by British government. In 1923, he was defeated by Vidhan Chandra Rai in the legislative election. He is regarded  as the ' Father of Nationalism. 

Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915):  In 1900, he was elected for central legislative assembly. In 1905, elected president of Indian National Congress. He founded 'The Servant of Indian Society' in 1905. He supported Swadeshi movement but opposed Boycott movement. Gokhale was the political mentor of Mahatama Gandhi.

A. O. Hume: was from Scotland. He was the main person behind the formation of Congress. He was the General secretary  of congress for 22 years, since its foundation. He edited a magazine 'The People's Friend'.

Moderate phase of Congress (1885-1905)

Three main leaders of Congress at that time were : Firuz Shah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Surendra Nath Bannerjee.Their demand was fare share within the system not that they wanted to establish any new system separating from British government. Their politics was of class not of mass, but it was for the mass and not in the interest of class.
Not all Britishers were scourge, some intended to give India a good government but they had no intention in doing this with the co operation of Indian people because they were of the view that Indians were not in a situation to understand the concept of modern government.
The Congress quickened the awakening of nationalism on all India basis. Hitherto the feeling of nationalism was decentralized and disintegrated. Other contemporary parties were doing the same work as congress but their area of work was limited. With the establishment of congress other regional parties merged themselves with the congress. Congress took a very conscious step of not raising any social issue because these issues create fiction within the party members.
Ranade established 'National Social Conference' in which member used to discuss social issues.
Moderate congress leaders were the first to start Polito-Constitutional agitation. Congress was making a sort of bridge between Britishers and Indian people to negotiate on the issues.
Demands of Moderate Congress:
(1). Reduction in military expenditure.
(2). Renewal of land revenue system.
(3). Separation of executive from judicial.
(4). To check the drain of wealth.
(5). Increase in civil services age limit.
(6). Abolish Vernacular Press Act and Arms Act.

Ram Krishna Mission and Swami Vivekananda

Ramkrishna Paramhans
RamKrishna Paramhans's original name was Gadadhar Chattopadhyay born in 1863.
Rasmani constructed the Kaali temple at Dakshineshwar of which Ramkrishna was appointed caretaker/priest. Spiritual teacher of Ramkrishna was Totapuri. Bhairavi had initiated him into Tantrik sadhna mode. He laid great emphasis on dispassion and detachment and he was of the firm belief that it is required to leave line of women and gold.
On 16 August 1686, Ramkrishna entered the final samadhi from where there is no return to living world.
Swami Vivekananda was born on 12 January 1863 in a Kayastha family. His fathers name was Vishwanath Dutta and mother was bhuvaneshwari Devi. His real name was Narendra Nath Dutt.
Swami Vivekananda visited Ramkrishna at Dakshineshwar. 'Ah, you come so late, you are the incarnation of Narayan. You have come to uplift the miseries of men.'-Ramkrishna.
Swami Vivekananda
In September 1893, a parliament of religion was held at Chicago in USA. This was a part of world fare whose name was 'Columbian Exposition' and it was celebrated on the event of 400 years of discovery of America by Columbus.
Vivekananda left for America on 31st May 1893 from Bombay and reached Chicago in mid July. He was introduced to a professor of Howard, J.H. Wright, who wrote a letter to president and gave him train tickets. Mrs Hale helped him in getting to the parliament of religion, it was inaugurated on 10th September 1893 at 10:00 am. Vivekananda spoke in the assembly six times and his first statement was 'Sisters and brothers of America'.
Vivekananda stayed in America from 1893-96. In Newyork , he established a Vedant society. There he had many followers, some prominent high class followers were Miss Margaret Nobel (Sister Niveditta), J.L. Goodwin, Mrs Olewill, Sister Christine, Sarah Owedo and Josphine Macleod. From America he went to Paris and therefrom he went to France. In France, he met Max Muller. There Muller asked Vivekananda about Ramkrishna and then he wrote an article 'A Real Mahatama' and latter a biography 'Ramkrishna-his life and saying'.
On coming to India, Vivekananda published two newspapers, one in English and other in Bengali. Prabudh Bharat in English and Udbodhan in Bengali. His lectures are compiled under following titles: My master, Rajyog, Bhakti yog, Gyan yog and Karm yog.
A monastery was opened at Barabazar and latter was shifted to Alambazar during the time of Ramkrishna. When Vivekananda returned India, he shifted this monastery to Vellore and there he founded Ramkrishna Mission.