Quit India Movement (1942)

On 14th July 1942, the congress working committee passed 'Quit India' resolution at Wardha conference. Prior to this meeting Gandhi had challenged his opponents that if the proposal for struggle is not accepted then he would create a movement bigger than Congress out of the sand.

On 7th August 1942, the annual session of AICC was held at the historical tank ground Gwalior  under the presidentship of Abul Kalam Azad and the Wardha proposal was passed.

On 8th August 1942, Bombay Congress passed Quit India resolution and Gandhi gave the slogan, 'do or die'. The movement of 1942 had the greatest impact in the regions of Bengal,Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Bombay and Madras. J.P. Narayan, Lohiya, Achyut Patwardhan and Aruna Asaf Ali went underground and continued this movement. Sucheta Kriplani, Chota Bhai Puranic, Beeju Patnayak and R.P. Goenka used to distribute explosives to secret organizations.

On 10th February 1943, Gandhi declared fast of 21 days at Agha Khan Palace, Poona. M.S. Ane, M.R. sarkar and H.P. Modi resigned from the Viceroy's executive committee demanding release of Gandhi.

On 6th May 1943, Gandhi was released from the jail. During the imprisonment, Mahadev Desai, his personal secretary and Kasturba, his wife died. Sardar Patel,Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad were imprisoned in the fort of Ahmadnagar. J.P. Narayan was imprisoned in Hazaribagh jail.

During Quit India movement, parallel governments were formed at several places such as : Ballia - First parallel government formed under Chittur Pandey, Tamluk (Midnapur,Bengal) , Satara (Maharashtra) - longest running parallel government.

One who opposed the Quit India movement were :
Communist party of India - opposition and boycott,
Muslim League - criticized because they were of the view that Muslims were in minority and Congress would form Hindu empire.

T.B. Sapru,
B.R. Ambedkar,
Anglo Indian Society,
Hindu Mahsabha,
Akaali Dal.

On 23rd March 1943, Muslim League observed "Pakistan Day". At the Karachi session in December 1943, Muslim League gave the slogan, 'Divide and Quit'.

Cripps's Mission (23 March 1942)

With the weakening of Allied forces in second world war, the pressure on Britain to do justice with Indians increased. American president Roosevelt, Australian prime minister Evar and Chinese prime minister Chiang Kai Shek exerted pressure on Winston Churchill to discuss with Indians for getting their support. Churchill declared that a mission led by Cripp's will be sent to India to remove political and constitutional obstacles. Cripps was the member of Labor party and supporter of Indian National Movement and friend to J.L. Nehru.

Cripps reached India on 23rd March and on 30th March 1942 he presented his report, India shall be given the status of dominion state after the war that shall not be any domestic and foreign rule. A constituent assembly will be formed after the war comprising representative of British India and princely states. If any of the state of British India does not participate/ accept this constitution then it shall be entitled to maintain status quo.

Congress and Muslim League both rejected the proposal. Gandhi termed it as post dated cheque on a crashing bank. J.L. Nehru commented that his old friend has come as the friend of evil. On 11 April 1942 the proposal was taken back.

Individual Satyagrah (1940)

This satyagrah was started on 17 October 1940. Gandhi nominated Vinobha Bhave as first satyagrahi and J..L. Nehru as second satyagrahi.

Muslim League and Demand of Pakistan

At Allahabad session of Muslim League in 1930, Iqbal said that the creation of Muslim state in North West India seems to be ultimate fate of Muslim. First time the word 'Pakistan' was given by Chaudhary Rahmat Ali, president of Pakistan National Movement and student of Cambridge University.

Punjab                          P
Afghan Province         A
Kashmir                       KI
Sindh                            S
Baluchistan                  TAN

The Muslim League constituted a committee in 1939 including Fazal Hussain and Hussain Qadiri. This committee prepared a proposal called 'Aligarh Plan' which suggested for the creation of a new Muslim nation. On 22-23 March 1940 at Lahore session of Muslim League, a proposal for separate state for Muslims was passed. This proposal didnot contained the name 'Pakistan'. This session was chaired by Mohd. Ali Jinnah.

In 1943 at Karachi session of Muslim League the proposal of 'Divide and Quit' was passed.

August Offer 1940 (8 August)

In March 1940, Congress passed a resolution at Ramgarh session demanding an interim national government at center in lieu of help in World War -II. Lord Linlithgow presented the August offer in reply to the demand of Congress on 8 August 1940. The main points were as follows :
1) Dominion Status (first time accepted by government)
2) Creation of a representative constitution body after WW-II
3) Increase in the number of Indians in the executive council of the viceroy
4) Organization of a war advisory council

J.L Nehru termed August offer as the rusted nail in the door.

Tripuri crisis of Congress

S.C. Bose was elected as the president of Congress in 1938 at the Haripura session. In this session, S.C. Bose constituted National Planning Committee under presidentship of J.L. Nehru, its other members were Birla and Vishweshraiya.

In 1939, S.C. Bose contended for the presidentship of Congress and he defeated Pattabhi Sitaramaiya, candidate of Gandhi. S.C. Bose got 1570 vote and Pattabhi got 1377. Gandhi declared defeat of Pattabhi as his own defeat. Ultimately in April 1939, S.C. Bose resigned and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was made new President.

On 3 May 1939, S.C. Bose founded a new party 'Forward Block' at Makur, Unnao. In August 1939, S.C. Bose was removed from the post of President of All India Congress committee and Bengal Congress Committee and was declared unfit for any post in Congress for the next 3 years.

End of Civil Disobedience Movement (Individual CDM)

Gandhi started Individual Civil Disobedience Movement on 1st August 1933. But this movement was soon discontinued. In 1933, S.C. Bose and Vitthal Bhai Patel declared Gandhi as unsuccessful leader and in October 1934 Gandhi distance himself from active politics and associated himself with the development of Hraijans. Gandhi resigned from the membership of Congress.

Communal Award and Poona Act

On 16 August 1932, British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald made announcement which is known as Communal award. It provided separate electorates not only for Muslims but also for depressed class (Dalits). The Muslims, Sikh, Christian, Anglo Indians and Europeans were provided separate electorates at the provincial level. Special Constituency's with reserved seats were to be constituted for women in all provinces except in North West Frontier Province. Seven seats were to be reserved for Marathas in Bombay.

Gandhi opposed communal award and he started fast unto death in the Yaarvadaa jail in the protesst against separate electorate for depressed class (Dalit).

Gandhi ended his fast following Poona pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar by the efforts of M.M Malviya, C. Rajagopalchari, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and P.K. Tandon.

According to Poona Act, 148 seats were reserved for the depressed class in different provincial legislature and 46 seats were reserved in central legislature.

Second Phase of Civil Disobedience Movement (1932-34)

 On 17th January 1932, the congress executive decided to restart the Civil Disobedience movement. Soon after the beginning of this movement, important readers like Gandhi,Nehru and Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan were arrested and congress was declared as illegal organization. The government arrested about 1,20,000 people.

Third Round Table Conference (17 November 1932 - 24 December 1932)

Total 46 members participated in the third round table conference but congress didn't participated. B.R. Ambedkar took part in this conference.

The British government on the basis of discussion of the three sessions drafted its proposal for the reform of Indian constitution. It was published in March 1933. This proposal was named 'White paper'. The 'White Paper' was examined and approved by British parliament in October 1934 and bill based on report of this committee was introduced and passed in British parliament which is known as 'Government of India Act, 1935'.

Karachi Session of Congress (December 1931)

The Congress for the first time passed resolution regarding Fundamental Rights and economic policies.

Poorna Swaraj was defined for the first time.

Congress for the first time passed resolution with regard to free primary education.

Second Round Table Conference (7 September 1931 - 1 December 1931)

The Second Round Table Conference was held at St. Thomas Palace. Gandhi was the representative of Congress. Annie Besant, Madan Mohan Malviya, Mohd. Iqbal, Ghanshyam Das Birla and Ambedkar were other members. Gandhi went to England by the ship, INS Rajputana.
The English rightist leader Winston Churchill was angry with British government that they were negotiating with the seditious fakir on the terms of equality. The Second Round Table Conference failed over the communal issue. Ambedkar wanted separate electoral for the depressed community but Gandhi rejected it.Ultimately this conference ended on 1st December.

Gandhi Irwin Pact

The efforts of Tej Bahadur Sapru and M. Jaykar brought the agreement with government. According to this pact, government agreed on :
  • Withdraw all ordinances.
  • Release all political prisoner except those guilty of voilence.
  • Restore the confiscated property of Satyagrahis.
  • Permit peaceful picketing on foreign clothing and liquor shops.
  • Permit the free collection and manufacture of salt to the living at specific distance fromt he sea port.
The Congress in return consented to the following :
  • To suspend Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • To participate in second session of Round Table Conference.
  • Not to press for any investigation in police accession.
The Gandhi Irwin pact was passed by Congress at its Karanchi session in December 1931. The Indian youth opposed this pact as no effort was made to save Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev.

First Round Table Conference (12 November 1930 - 19 January 1931)

First Round Table Conference was held at Royal Gallery, House of Lords, London, it was inaugurated by George-V and its chairman was Prime Minister, Ramsay McDonald. Congress didnot participated in this conference (they were organising Civil Disobedience Movement).

The Viceroy released Gandhi on 25 January 1931. The Congress executives authorised Gandhi for holding talks with Viceroy. After 15 days discussion an agreement was signed in 15 March 1931-Gandhi-Irwin Pact (also known as Delhi Samjhauta).