Land Revenue Policies During The British Rule

Permanent Settlement:: The permanent settlement was introduced in Bengal in 1793. The concept of permanent settlement was also introduced in Pitt's India Act 1784. Thomas law introduced it in Bihar in the form of Muqarrari Settlement, this system was also introduced in Bengal, Orissa, Benaras section of Uttar Pradesh and northern part of Karnataka, it constituted 19% of British India land. Under this system, a new class of zamindar was declared as the owner of the land and they were paid 11th part of the collected revenue. The share of zamindar was fixed but revenue collection from peasants was not fixed and this increased the exploitation of peasants.

Merits of Permanent Settlement: The government revenue became certain. The government got the support of a new class of zamindar as they were also benefited from this system and they became supporters of East India Company.

Demerits of Permanent Settlement: Agriculture development stopped and farmers were now changed into laborers. 

Ryotwari System:: This was implemented by Thomas Munroe and Captain Reed. About 50% of British India was under this system. In this system, peasants were given ownership rights over the land and they directly paid revenue to the government. The land was measured and on the basis of which 55% was taken as revenue. Despite of making peasants owner of land, the conditions of the peasants did not improve,as the measurement of land and determination or the revenue was erratic. This system was implemented in Maharashtra, Madras, East Bengal, Assam and Kurga.
This system resulted in reduction of prices of land and agriculture became unprofitable business. The method of collection of revenue was exploitative which led to indebtedness of the peasants. This system gave rise to class of Mahajans.
The main purpose of this system was to regularize revenue and improving the condition of the peasants.
Mahalwari System :: This system was implemented in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Central Province. 30% land was under this system. The credit if starting this system goes to James Thompson and Mount Stuart Alfenston. In this system, revenue was determined on the basis of the production of whole village (Mahal). This system was two tier:
(1). With the whole village as group.
(2). Individually from peasants as land owner.
The ownership right of the land was with farmers. The peasants were responsible for the payment of revenue both individually and group. The system included the better aspects of earlier two systems. 

Demerits of these systems:: These systems had destructive impact in Indian agriculture. The landlords in this system became absentee businessman concerned only with revenue. As a result of these systems, the traditional, political, economic and social structures of the rural community was destroyed. New social classes like Landlords, Businessman and Mahajan emerged. The rural society declined  and rivalry in the villages emerged that broke the traditional relations between peasants, artisans and labors. Population increased during this period.The Indian cottage industries were destroyed due to increasing English imports. The average size of land holdings decreased.
The farmer had no way to make out the meetings of rising burden and farmers came into the clutches. The external interference in the villages increased with the increase of material goods. The village panchayats gradually started declining.


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    1. no one asked ur opinion my dear.

    2. bhains ke aagey been bajaane se kya fayda