Partition of Bengal

19 July 1905 : Announcement by lord Curzon.
07 August 1905 : Resolution of boycott passed in the Town Hall of Calcutta.
16 October 1905 : Partition of Bengal in effect.

The population of Bengal at the time of partition was 7 crore 85 lakh, at that time Bihar and Orissa were included in Bengal. Assam was separated from Bengal in 1874 (governor was Lord Mayo). Lord Curzon gave the reason of administration inconvenience for the partition of Bengal but in reality the reason was political. Bengal at that time was the focal point of national movements and Bengali's had strong political awareness, to curb which Curzon tried to partition Bengal.
On 19 July 1905, decision of partition was declared. On 07 August 1905 at historical meeting at Townhall of Calcutta, the Swadeshi movement was declared and the historical boycott movement was passed. On 01 September 1905, government declared that partition of Bengal would be effected from 16 October 1905.
On 16 October 1905, Bengal was divided into East and West Bengal. East Bengal included Assam, Rajsahi, Chittagong and Dhaka and Dhaka was made its capital, the population was 3 crore and 10 lakh (Muslims: 1 crore and 80 lakh). West Bengal included Bihar, Orissa and Calcutta and Calcutta was made its capital, the population was 5 crore and 40 lakh (Muslims: 90 lakh).
On 16th October, black day/sorrow day was observed throughout Bengal. The declaration of partition of Bengal created such a strong political storm that it brought people and political leaders of different view on same platform. Vande Matram became national song overnight and became mantra for national movement. S.N. Bannerjee emerged as a major leader in anti partition movement. At this time Rabindra Nath Tagore wrote 'Rakhi Sangeet' and 'Amar Sonar Bangla'. 16th October was observed as Raksha Bandhan Day.

Important Extemists Leaders

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadgar Tilak (1856-1920) : known as the father of extremism/radicalism. Born on 23rd July 1856. He founded 'Puna New School' and was also associated with Deccan Educational Society and Ferguson College. He was a staunch follower of Hindu religion. culture and civilization. He organized 'Akhada' and 'Laathi' club to make youth brave and bold. He published the following newspapers: Maratha in English and Kesari in Marathi. He also wrote two well known books: Gita Rahasya and The Arctic Home of Aryans. Tilak started two festivals: Ganesh Utsav and Shivaji Utsav. He died on 1st August 1920.
Tilak was regarded 'father of Indian unrest' by Valentine Cherol.
'Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it'-Tilak in Lucknow session in 1916.

Lala Lajpat Rai
Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928) : Joined congress in 1888. In 1914, went to America and joined 'Gadar Party' (founded by Lala Har Dayal). He published  a newspaper 'Young India'. In 1920, was made president of Calcutta Congress special session. He co operated with Gandhi in Non Co operation Movement but opposed educational boycott. In 1928, when Simon commission reached Lahore, he opposed, he was assaulted in lathi charge in which he died. He established DAV college at Lahore. He is also known as 'Punjab Kesari' and 'Lion of Punjab'.
On his death, Gandhi said,'Lalaji cant die so long as the Sun and Moon shines on Indian sky'.

Bipin Chandra Pal
Bipin Chandra Pal : Born on 7th September 1858, Assam, was a member  of Brahmo Samaj. His father was strong supporter of Hinduism. He joined congress in 1897. In the beginning he was the supporter of Moderates but later he became Extremist, after the partition of Bengal. He was not in favor of Non Cooperation Movement of Gandhi in 1920.

Difference between Moderates and Extremists Congress

The Moderates wanted to achieve self government , they did not aim for total independence. They demanded certain reforms and concessions from British government because they wanted to develop India under the guidance of benevolent British rule. On the other hand, Extremists wanted Swaraj ie, complete independence.
Moderates were loyal to British rule and English crown. They considered British rule a gift for India. The Extremists were not loyal to British rule and they considered it as a curse and wanted to uproot it from India.
'Swaraj is better than best form of foreign rule'-Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
The moderates believed in adopting constitutional and peaceful method to achieve their objective. They had full faith in British sense of justice.Extremists believed in non co operation and adopted method of boycott against foreign goods and propagation of swadeshi and national education. They believed in Indian culture, civilization, religion and tradition. Whereas Moderates believed in British culture.
Moderates believed that Indians were not fit to rule. Under the moderates, national movement was not a popular movement, it had no touch with people. While under extremists, people came under them.

Important leaders of Moderate Congress

Dadabhai Naoroji
Dadabhai Naoroji (1825-1917): aslo known as 'Grand old man of India. He became member of Bombay  Corporation in 1885 and president of Indian National Congress in 1886.He became member of British parliament in 1892. He became president of Indian National Congress thrice.

Pherozshah Mehta
Pherozshah Shah Mehta (1845-1915): was a renowned lawyer. In 1872, became member of Bombay corporation. In 1886, became member of legislative assembly. In 1890, became president of Indian National Congress. He regarded British government as symbol of progress and divine gift to India

Surendra Nath Bannerjee
Surendra Nath Bannerjee (1848-1925): founded Indian Association in 1876 at  Calcutta. He edited a magazine named 'Bengali'. He launched ICS movement. He did not supported 'Non Co operation Movement' by Mahatama Gandhi in 1921 and for that he was awarded the title of 'Sir' (Knighthood) by British government. In 1923, he was defeated by Vidhan Chandra Rai in the legislative election. He is regarded  as the ' Father of Nationalism. 

Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915):  In 1900, he was elected for central legislative assembly. In 1905, elected president of Indian National Congress. He founded 'The Servant of Indian Society' in 1905. He supported Swadeshi movement but opposed Boycott movement. Gokhale was the political mentor of Mahatama Gandhi.

A. O. Hume: was from Scotland. He was the main person behind the formation of Congress. He was the General secretary  of congress for 22 years, since its foundation. He edited a magazine 'The People's Friend'.

Moderate phase of Congress (1885-1905)

Three main leaders of Congress at that time were : Firuz Shah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Surendra Nath Bannerjee.Their demand was fare share within the system not that they wanted to establish any new system separating from British government. Their politics was of class not of mass, but it was for the mass and not in the interest of class.
Not all Britishers were scourge, some intended to give India a good government but they had no intention in doing this with the co operation of Indian people because they were of the view that Indians were not in a situation to understand the concept of modern government.
The Congress quickened the awakening of nationalism on all India basis. Hitherto the feeling of nationalism was decentralized and disintegrated. Other contemporary parties were doing the same work as congress but their area of work was limited. With the establishment of congress other regional parties merged themselves with the congress. Congress took a very conscious step of not raising any social issue because these issues create fiction within the party members.
Ranade established 'National Social Conference' in which member used to discuss social issues.
Moderate congress leaders were the first to start Polito-Constitutional agitation. Congress was making a sort of bridge between Britishers and Indian people to negotiate on the issues.
Demands of Moderate Congress:
(1). Reduction in military expenditure.
(2). Renewal of land revenue system.
(3). Separation of executive from judicial.
(4). To check the drain of wealth.
(5). Increase in civil services age limit.
(6). Abolish Vernacular Press Act and Arms Act.

Ram Krishna Mission and Swami Vivekananda

Ramkrishna Paramhans
RamKrishna Paramhans's original name was Gadadhar Chattopadhyay born in 1863.
Rasmani constructed the Kaali temple at Dakshineshwar of which Ramkrishna was appointed caretaker/priest. Spiritual teacher of Ramkrishna was Totapuri. Bhairavi had initiated him into Tantrik sadhna mode. He laid great emphasis on dispassion and detachment and he was of the firm belief that it is required to leave line of women and gold.
On 16 August 1686, Ramkrishna entered the final samadhi from where there is no return to living world.
Swami Vivekananda was born on 12 January 1863 in a Kayastha family. His fathers name was Vishwanath Dutta and mother was bhuvaneshwari Devi. His real name was Narendra Nath Dutt.
Swami Vivekananda visited Ramkrishna at Dakshineshwar. 'Ah, you come so late, you are the incarnation of Narayan. You have come to uplift the miseries of men.'-Ramkrishna.
Swami Vivekananda
In September 1893, a parliament of religion was held at Chicago in USA. This was a part of world fare whose name was 'Columbian Exposition' and it was celebrated on the event of 400 years of discovery of America by Columbus.
Vivekananda left for America on 31st May 1893 from Bombay and reached Chicago in mid July. He was introduced to a professor of Howard, J.H. Wright, who wrote a letter to president and gave him train tickets. Mrs Hale helped him in getting to the parliament of religion, it was inaugurated on 10th September 1893 at 10:00 am. Vivekananda spoke in the assembly six times and his first statement was 'Sisters and brothers of America'.
Vivekananda stayed in America from 1893-96. In Newyork , he established a Vedant society. There he had many followers, some prominent high class followers were Miss Margaret Nobel (Sister Niveditta), J.L. Goodwin, Mrs Olewill, Sister Christine, Sarah Owedo and Josphine Macleod. From America he went to Paris and therefrom he went to France. In France, he met Max Muller. There Muller asked Vivekananda about Ramkrishna and then he wrote an article 'A Real Mahatama' and latter a biography 'Ramkrishna-his life and saying'.
On coming to India, Vivekananda published two newspapers, one in English and other in Bengali. Prabudh Bharat in English and Udbodhan in Bengali. His lectures are compiled under following titles: My master, Rajyog, Bhakti yog, Gyan yog and Karm yog.
A monastery was opened at Barabazar and latter was shifted to Alambazar during the time of Ramkrishna. When Vivekananda returned India, he shifted this monastery to Vellore and there he founded Ramkrishna Mission.

Annie Besant and Theosophical Society

Annie Besant was born on 1st October 1847, her father was English and mother was Irish. She was married at the age of 20 to a clergyman, Rverant Frank. The couple had a boy and a girl. Annie Besant got divorced in 1873, son went with father and girl was with Annie.
Annie Besant founded a school in Varanasi, nowadays known as BHU (Benares Hindu University).
Annie came in contact with Charles Bradlaw, a radical politician of England and leader of Free Thinkers Movement. Soon she started writing and came to know that she can be orator as well.
George Bernard Shaw was the leader of Fabian Society and helped Annie Besant to join Fabian Society.
She was the first to organize British Trade Union for women in England.

Theosophical Society was founded in USA in 1875 by a Russian Lady Blavasky and English Col. O.H. Olcott. The main objects of the society were:
(1). To form a universal brotherhood of man.
Annie Besant and Olcott (L-R)
(2). To promote the study of ancient religions, philosophies and sciences ie, ancient wisdom.
(3). To investigate the laws of nature and develop divine powers latent in man.

In 1889, Annie Besant decided to join Theosophical and left all other societies. After the death of Blavasky in 1891, she took over the Theosophical society and because of this society she came to India in 1890. She wrote her autobiography before coming to India and she used to say that she had been incarnated many times in India.
She wrote "Universal textbook of religion and morals", which is compendium of basic truth of all great religions of the world. Theosophical society doesn't consider any religion for its membership, it was not a sect or religion.
Through this society, Annie gave Indian back their pride who had lost faith in themselves. She brought a new self respect, a pride in the past and firm belief in the future. She considered education as the very fundamental of civilization. She started her crusade of education from the bank of river Ganges, Benares. In 1898, she established a central Hindu college and was supported by Bhagwan Das and Govind Das. After the completion of college she handed over the responsibility to Madan Mohan Malviya, latter this college developed into university, Benares Hindu University. She also started a girls college in Benare. Later she shifted to South India when she was elected president of Theosophical society in 1907 for seven years.
On the basis of YMCA and YWCA she opened YMIA (Young Men Indian Association) and latter also opened YWIA. It became so popular that people started considering it as some branch of YMCA.
Baden Powell  is regarded as the father of the World Scout Movement. He refused affiliation with alienate group in India because number of English people were less in number to be started with. Annie Besant founded Indian Boys Scout Association with the help of leaders like Tarani Prasad Sinha and Sanjeev Kamath. She insisted that boys should wear Indian turban and they must also sing Indian song instead of Powell's scout who had to wear a uniform and used to sang their own song. When Baden Powell came to India and saw Indian Boys Scout Association, he requested for the amalgamation of British and Indian Scout Movement. He appointed Annie Besant as honorary scout commissioner of India.
Annie Besant entered Indian political arena in 1913. To express her political ideology she started a weekly magazine "Common Weal", it became very popular and then she started daily newspaper "New India". Her political ambition had two goals to fulfill : (1). Home Rule for India and (2). India's right to prepare her own constitution.
Her endeavor led to the reunion of Congress (Extremists and Moderates). Home rule was also started by Tilak but both had different areas. Motilal Nehru, Mohd Ali Jinnah and Ramaswammy Aiyyer joined Home Rule Movement with Annie Besant.
Annie Besant was made house prisoner. Even American president Rudolf Wilson pressed the British government to meet the demands of Home Rule Movement. S. Subramanyam Aiyyer, retired judge of High Court, renounced his title. Annie Besant was released on 16th September 1917 and this was the time when she became the living symbol of Mother India. She became the first woman president of Congress in December 1917. In the congress session at Calcutta she took the initiative that Congress should have their own flag and the color was red, white and green horizontally to be install in flag (this combination was upto 1930).
Annie Besant was against the policy of Civil Disobedience Movement, for the people opposing the law. She died on 20th September 1923.

Causes of the Conquest of British and Defeat of Indian States

The defeat of Indian states against Britishers was not the defeat of Indian army but the defeat of stationary and backward society against dynamic and regressive society.
Britishers suffering from intrinsic superiority complex defeated Indians. According to Indians, Britishers were unduly cruel so they were victorious. Now, these two theories doesn't exist. 

Difference in the quality of leadership:: India was inferior to the Britishers in the case of second class leadership. Success of leadership depends on the situation existing at that time and the Indian leaders didn't had that opportunity.
The sources of India were divided and used against herself while the resources of British were unified, replenishing and resilient. Once the loss of Indian resources was lost forever and the British loss at one place was compensated by the reserves of other place. Indian resources were non expandable. Both the Indian and the British army were fighting at the cost of India herself. There was no fight for India but it was used as instrument.
Lack of concept of Nationalism:: The modern concept of nationalism doesn't existed at that time instead it was tribal nationalism.
In Europe the medieval  feudalism concept was relinquished and was rising into state power whereas in India, after the breakage of Mughal empire, feudalism was strengthening. At that time Europe was having industrial revolution. Indians were not having concept of modern nationalism and Europe had negative nationalism ie, the prosperity of one nation depends on exploitation of other nation.  

The greatest mean of culture is language, it is the spirit of culture and in India there had been the tradition of learning rulers language ( get government jobs and trade facilities by language..)

Increase in Foreign Capital in India and Emergence of Modern Industries

India could not be kept away from the modern industries to fulfill the capitalist requirement of the world.
In 1833, the British government permitted English to buy lands in India and can do plantation. The first tea plantation was planted in 1835 and tea produced in India was first time sold to London in 1838. In 1839, Assam tea company was established.
The Textiles, Jute and Coal mining industry started in India in the decade of 1850.
The British rulers realized that if they have to get their goods consumed in a large scale in India and have to obtain raw materials for their industries then a cheap and easy mode of transport must be developed. The main purpose of introducing railway in India was to connect the ports with markets so that raw materials could be obtained easily. The first train ran in 1853 between Thane and Mumbai.
The laying of railway tracks till 1859 was done by the company. After 1859, the government of India started the work of railway tracks. These railway tracks had 350 crores invested in it and all these investments was that of British capital investors.
In 1853, the first telegraph line was started between Calcutta and Agra.


Britishers deliberately kept India away from the fruits of Industrial revolution and tried to keep India as agrarian economy so that they could obtain cheap raw materials for their industries and sell their products in India. Thus Britain converted India into agricultural colony industry of Britain.
The British artisans who were unemployed due to industrialization were absorbed by the industries, whereas in India handicraft  industry was destroyed but the modern industry did not developed.
R.C. Dutta calls the replacement of Indian goods as "most sorrowful chapter of British-India history".
The disruption of balance between agriculture and industry reduced the national income and millions of workers became unemployed and they shifted back to agriculture leading to ruralization of India.
As the agriculture had become non profitable, the farmers were unable to help the artisans. With the coming of foreign goods, demands for domestic goods declined.  During the British rule, rural  industry was gradually destroyed while urban industry were abruptly and completely destroyed.
The victory at the battle of Plassey provided political power to the Britishers and  they started imposing conditions on peasants and artisans for promoting their trade and started forcing them for buying imported goods.
By 1720, laws were made regarding Dyed Clothes and Indian textiles. Excluding Holland/Netherland, all European countries prohibited the import of Indian textile. The Indian industry reached their lowest after the industrial revolution in England. The East India Company destroyed the princely states, the biggest customer of Indian industry.
By 1813, the industrial class in England had become politically powerful and the monopoly of East India Company was ended by the Chartered Act of 1813 and door was opened for every citizen of England to trade with India.

Disintegration of Village Community and Rise of Middle Class of India

Foreign rule in India had demolished ancient Indian social order and relations that linked different classes of villages/rural community. The joint family system was weakened. The agricultural production was no more in accordance with the needs of the people but was in accordance with the market.
In the words of Carl Marx. " The changes in wealth relation led to social revolution".
Backwardness of Agriculture:: The increasing land revenue hampered growth of agriculture and condition of peasants was like helpless slaves. The foreign rule had destroyed Indian trade and industry and so the burden of taxes fell on farmers alone.
Famine, Plague and unemployment were the consequences.
All the agricultural surplus went into the hands of zamindars and the peasants were not left with any cash or crop.
Rise in Rural Debt::  As a result of the aforesaid reasons, the debt on peasants rapidly increased during the British rule. The main cause responsible for this was that more than 75% of the farmers were not able to earn their livelihood from farming. The farmers took debt from local mahajans to pay revenue dues and due to the non payment of debts, their lands went into the hands of mahajans. The rate of interest was different in different regions and it ranged from 12% to 200%.
In the British period, land became sellable. The farmes got the right to sell  or mortgage their lands.
Commercialization of Agriculture::  With the establishment of new land relations, the purpose of rural agriculture changed from producing for the villages to the producing for the markets. As a result of the commercialization of agriculture, farmers started growing some particular crops like Sugarcane, Indigo, Opium, Cotton, Jute, Oilseeds etc.
Increase In Poverty::  Several factors were responsible for the increase in poverty of farmers such as agricultural prices, famine, flood, epidemic etc. According to William Digby, approximately 24 famines occurred between 1854 AD and 1901 AD in which 290 lac died.
Decline of Rural Industry and Handicraft::  Prior to British rule, rural industry was a component of the balance and self sufficient rural economy. These villages were capable of fulfilling their needs locally.

Land Revenue Policies During The British Rule

Permanent Settlement:: The permanent settlement was introduced in Bengal in 1793. The concept of permanent settlement was also introduced in Pitt's India Act 1784. Thomas law introduced it in Bihar in the form of Muqarrari Settlement, this system was also introduced in Bengal, Orissa, Benaras section of Uttar Pradesh and northern part of Karnataka, it constituted 19% of British India land. Under this system, a new class of zamindar was declared as the owner of the land and they were paid 11th part of the collected revenue. The share of zamindar was fixed but revenue collection from peasants was not fixed and this increased the exploitation of peasants.

Merits of Permanent Settlement: The government revenue became certain. The government got the support of a new class of zamindar as they were also benefited from this system and they became supporters of East India Company.

Demerits of Permanent Settlement: Agriculture development stopped and farmers were now changed into laborers. 

Ryotwari System:: This was implemented by Thomas Munroe and Captain Reed. About 50% of British India was under this system. In this system, peasants were given ownership rights over the land and they directly paid revenue to the government. The land was measured and on the basis of which 55% was taken as revenue. Despite of making peasants owner of land, the conditions of the peasants did not improve,as the measurement of land and determination or the revenue was erratic. This system was implemented in Maharashtra, Madras, East Bengal, Assam and Kurga.
This system resulted in reduction of prices of land and agriculture became unprofitable business. The method of collection of revenue was exploitative which led to indebtedness of the peasants. This system gave rise to class of Mahajans.
The main purpose of this system was to regularize revenue and improving the condition of the peasants.
Mahalwari System :: This system was implemented in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Central Province. 30% land was under this system. The credit if starting this system goes to James Thompson and Mount Stuart Alfenston. In this system, revenue was determined on the basis of the production of whole village (Mahal). This system was two tier:
(1). With the whole village as group.
(2). Individually from peasants as land owner.
The ownership right of the land was with farmers. The peasants were responsible for the payment of revenue both individually and group. The system included the better aspects of earlier two systems. 

Demerits of these systems:: These systems had destructive impact in Indian agriculture. The landlords in this system became absentee businessman concerned only with revenue. As a result of these systems, the traditional, political, economic and social structures of the rural community was destroyed. New social classes like Landlords, Businessman and Mahajan emerged. The rural society declined  and rivalry in the villages emerged that broke the traditional relations between peasants, artisans and labors. Population increased during this period.The Indian cottage industries were destroyed due to increasing English imports. The average size of land holdings decreased.
The farmer had no way to make out the meetings of rising burden and farmers came into the clutches. The external interference in the villages increased with the increase of material goods. The village panchayats gradually started declining.

British impact on Indian Agriculture

Indian economy was mainly an agrarian economy before colonial period. Agriculture was the main occupation of the people and industries like textile, sugar, oil etc were also depended on it.Before the coming of English, Indian villages were self sufficient and used to practice agriculture and handicraft together. They used to pay portion of produce as land revenue and sell one portion in cities. 

British Land Revenue System : The land revenue system of Bengal started by Warner Hastings was based on the principle that all land belong to the crown. He started the system of auctioning of the rights of the land. This deprived old landlords of their lands.
At the time when Clive got Diwani of Bengal, a system of annual settlement was in practice, it was collected by two Diwans, Rheza Khan in Bengal and Shitab Rai in Bihar. (In 1772, the post of Nayab Diwan was abolished and land revenue came directly into the hands of governor and its council.)
Warren Hastings changed annual revenue system into 5 year system. The post of European collector was abolished in 1773 and was reintroduced in 1781 and Calcutta was made the centre of collection of revenue.

Various phases of British colonialism in India

The foundation of British colonialism was led in 1757 after the battle of Plassey. The objective of East India Company was that of capitalist monopolistic companies ie earning maximum profit by gaining control over the factors of production in foreign territory. The initial objective was to take over such resources under their control that can be sold in England markets, for which they took several steps. As a result wealth and resources started draining out of India year after year. The centuries old handicraft declined and agriculture became only medium of substance.
Rajnipalm Dutta has outlined 3 phases of colonialism in his book, India Today:
(1). Commercial phase (1757-1813) :The East India Company had established their monopoly over trade started exporting goods obtained at low prices to Europe. During this period, revenue obtained from Bengal was used for purchasing goods. This was termed as 'investment' by company.
(2). Industrial Free Trade or Commercial Capitalism (1813-58) : In this phase India became a free market for import of British goods and export source of raw materials to England. In 1813, the companies trading in India was prohibited and from 1833 all the commercial activities of the company was stopped. Now the capitalists started exploiting India openly, they used to buy raw materials from India and sell there produce here. This created famine in India.
(3). Financial Capitalism (1860-1947) : The revolt of 1857 was the strong reaction of peasants towards the colonial policy of English. Roads, Railways, Posts, Telegraphs and Banks were developed to fulfill the commercial requirement. These methods provided greater opportunities for capital investment, the British debt over India went on increasing year after year. During this phase, India completely became colony of Britain. The colonialism destroyed old production centres of India. 

Economic impact of British in India

India was the largest producer of industrial goods in the world in the 17th century. The principle exports were cotton textiles, Silk, Spices, Indigo, Sugar, Medicinal Herbs, Gems and Handicrafts. The balance of trade favored India as imports were lesser.
The trade and commerce in India started declining towards the end of Aurangzeb reign.The economy of that period has been termed as shrinking economy. The decline of Mughal empire after the death of Aurangzeb led to a non condensive environment for the production and marketing of commercial goods.
An act was passed in 1700, that prohibited the import of Asian Silk, printed and colored textile to India. In 1720, another act was passed prohibiting the wearing of cloth not painted in England.
After the battle of Buxar, India became a colonial economy from surplus economy and the British trade became monopolistic from competitive.
The wealth of Bengal started flowing out to England in the 18th century and population of Bengal was reduced to 1/3 and 1/3 became jungle in which animals used to live. The textile of Bengal were famous worldwide on which Britishers established monopoly. The agent of company established monopoly over weavers by paying them in advance (Dadani).
In 1772, an officer of the company, Bolts wrote,'Those weavers who well their produce to any other than company, their produce were confiscated and were fined, in case of non payment of fine they were imprisoned, there were cases of cutting of thumbs, this encouraged most weavers to quit their profession.'
In 1765, Clive gained monopoly over the manufacture of Salt by a society. In 1768, manufacture of salt was stopped and then Zamindars and Indian traders could make only on payment of 30% duty. In 1772, Company once again started making salt. In 1776, Warren Hastings started the system of leasing, the right to make and sell salt. (In 1758, Clive obtained monopoly over Salt Petre from Mir Jaffer).
In 1793, Indigo became an important commodity of export. 'British free traders' were Indigo planters who exploited Indigo peasants.
Like Indigo, company also established monopoly over Opium in Bengal and Bihar. This Opium was mainly exported to China.
The Industrial revolution in England in the last decade of 18th century and early decades of 19th century led to increase in productive capacity. The British producers managed to capture the large market for their goods in India by their political power. This led to an economic revolution and India became the land of poors.
In 1815, the government of Bengal reduced import duty on Britishers by 25% which was a serious blow to the Indian Cotton industry.

Third Anglo Mysore War (1790-92)

Nizam and Marathas allied against Tipu Sultan but Tipu defeated the alliance. Then Cornwallis made a triple  alliacne with Nizam and Maratha (Cornwallis was the first governor to India with military administrative power). Tipu attacked Travencore, East India Company took the side of king of Travencore. British troop captured Bangalore on 29 Januray 1791 and reached Srirangapatnam on 13 May. In March 1792, the Treaty of Srirangapatnam took place when Tipu realized the impossibility of further resistance. By this treaty Tipu surrendered half of his empire. East India Company got Barahmahal, Dindigul and Malabar, Marathas got the area north of Tungabhadra and Nizam got the area between river Pennar and Krishna. Tipu sent his two sons as hostages to Cornwallis camp.

Second Anglo Mysore War (1780-84)

Tipu Sultan
When Marathas attacked Mysore in 1770-71, the English did not help Hyder Ali as per the Treaty of Madras.
In 1779, Hyder Ali joined confederacy with Nizam against English, Marathas also joined this confederation.
In July 1780, Hyder Ali attacked Karnataka and defeated English force under col. Belli and got victory over Arcot. Sir Iyer defeated Hyder Ali in November 1781 at Porto Nova.
December 1782, Hyder Ali died and his son Tipu continued the war against East India Company.
In March 1784, the governor of Madras and Tipu Sultan signed a treaty of Mangalore and ended the war

First Anglo Mysore war (1767-69)

Hyder Ali
The Nizam and the English attacked Mysore in 1767. But Nizam influenced by Nawab of Karnataka, allied  himself with Hyder Ali. In September 1767, captain Smith defeated new allies at Changama valley. After this defeat, Nizam left Hyder Ali and concluded a treaty with East India Company on 23 February 1768. Hyder Ali continued to fight and got victory over Mangalore and surrounded Madras.
On 4 April 1769, English were forced to sign a treaty that favored Hyder Ali, Treaty of Madras. 

East India Company and Bengal

The contemporary Bengal included modern West Bengal, Bangladesh, Bihar and Orissa. It was the most prosperous state. In 1700, Murshid Kuli Khan became Diwan of Bengal and in 1717 he declared his independence. During his period, three Zamindar revolt occured; first by Sitaram Rai, second by Udai Naryan and Ghulam Mohammed and third by Sujat Khan and Najat Khan. Defeating these three their zamindari was given to Ramjeevan.
In 1727, after the death of Murshid kuli Khan his son in law Suja ud din sat on the throne and remain ruler till 1739.
In 1739, Sarfaraj became the nawab of Bengal and in the same year Ali vardi  Khan became the ruler after killing Sarfaraj Khan in the Giriya war.
All these three rulers gave equal importance to both Hindus and Muslims in their court and they all made one mistake that they ignored the importance of navy and this was why they were defeated in the end.

Causes for the defeat of French in India

(1). The involvement of French in European wars.
(2). Administrative weakness.
(3). Dependance of French company on French government.
(4). Economic prosperity of English company due to their supremacy over Bengal.
(5). Relatively better political and military leadership of the British company.
(6). Duplex responsibility.

Third Carnatic War (1758-63)

This war broke soon after the beginning of seven year war of Europe. French appointed count Lolly as governor and during this period English had established their supremacy over Bengal and financially very strong.
On 1st May 1758, Lolly had won over the fort of St. David but the battle of Wandivaas on 22nd June 1760 proved to be the decisive battle and the fate of French was finalized. The victor of Wandivaas, Iyer went a step further and won over small colonies of French. English also got hold over Jinji, Mahe and Pondicherry, these were returned to French after the treaty of Paris.

Second Carnatic War (1749-54)

Dupleix turned into secret alliances with Chanda Saab and Mujaffarjung. On 3rd May, the three allaying parties defeated and killed Anwar ud din in the battle of Ambur near Vellore. The son of Anwar ud din, Mohd Ali fled to Trichanapalli.
The English tried to form alliance with Nasirjung and Mohd Ali but could not succeed .
In Dec 1705, Nasirjung was killed and Mujaffarjung was made subedar of Deccan by the French. Mujaffarjung appointed Dupleix as the governor of the whole Mughal territory of South of river Krishna and gave the state near Pondicherry and coast of Orissa as Jagir. In return, Duplex gave Mujaffarjung services of his best officer Busi along with the platoon of his army. (It was the first subsidiary alliance formed by Duplex in India).
But the downfall of French was not far away. Mohd Ali, son of Anwar ud din had taken shelter in Trichannapalli, to which Chanda Saab and French could not win. Clive attacked Areot so as to reduce pressure of Trichannapalli and this attack was successful, Chanda Saab was killed by the king of Tanjore. The defeat in Trichanapali proved to be the doomsday of Duplex and he was called back to France. Thus the second stage of war ended and the territorial expansion was dominated by English and Mohd Ali became Nawab of Karnataka and Hyderabad was still in hold of French. 

First Carnatic War (1745-48)

The struggle started in India after English fleet under Bernet took over the French ships.The French had surrounded Madras from both sides,land as well as sea and forced them to surrender. This war was going on in the state of newly appointed nawab Awar ud din of Carnatic.The English requested nawab to intervene, then Anwar ud din ordered French to remove the build up around Madras but Duplex refused to do so. The nawab sent a huge army who were defeated by the French army in St. Thome.
The war of Carnatic ended with the end of war in Europe. The succession war of Austria ended with the treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle (1748) and Madras was returned to English, thus first stage of struggle ended and no side gained territorial expansion.

Anglo-French Struggle

When the Mughal power became week and the Subedars of Deccan were unable to protect the companies, the company took sword to defend themselves. The objective of both these companies was to earn more and more profit and was possible only if there was no competitor and for this political control was essential.
In 17th and 18th century, these companies were staunch rival  and whenever these countries clashed in Europe, a war between companies started everywhere.

The Anglo-French war in India begun with the war of succession in Autria. At that time the headquarter of French was at Pondicherry. Karaikal, Masulipatnam, Mahi, Surat and Chandranagar were other centres. English had main centres at Bombay, Madras and Calcutta.

Advent of some other companies in India

Denmark came to India in 1616 AD and opened factories at Travancore in 1620 and at Srirampur in 1676.

Swedish company was established in 1731 and it restricted its market upto China only.

The rivalry among the companies continued, first between Portuguese and Dutch then between Portuguese and English and then between French and English. English finally defeated Dutch in 1759 in the battle of Bedara and French were defeated in the battle of Vandivaas in 1761.

The principle exports from India were textiles, food pulses like rice, sugar etc, commercial products like Indigo, opium, salt peter etc.

The 17th century and the beginning of 18th century can be said as the golden age of the sea trade of India with Europe. But this prosperity was short timed and soon the European commercial relation gripped India into colonial subjugation.

French East India Company

French East India Company
The coming of French to India started very late and their initial attempts failed because of Dutchess. even then people like Henry IV. Rislu and Colbert (finance minister of Henry IV) realised the significance of Eastern trade. On Colbert's request in 1664, Compagnie Des Indes Orientals was established in India. In 1667, an expedition group came to India under the leadership of Francis Caro and established first factory in Surat.

In 1669, Mercara established second factory in Masulipatnam after getting permission from the Sultan of Golkunda.

In 1672, the French acquired Santhome near Madras.

In 1673, Franco Martin and Laspino got a village from the Muslim Subedar of Valikondapur, this latter became Pondicherry.

In 1674, Shaista Khan, nawab of Bengal provided a place for the French settlement where the famous mansion of Chandranagar was built in 1692.

The rivalry between the Dutch and French were going on in Europe due to which Dutch took Pondicherry away from french in 1693, but after the Rizwik treaty in 1697, Dutch returned Pondicherry to French.

In 1706, the population of Pondicherry had reached 40000.

In June 1720, the company was restructured as permanent in India.

Initial English Settlements of Bengal

Bengal was one such place where goods could not be purchased near coast and one had to enter into inlands in order to purchase the goods and there the Britishers had to pay toll taxes at several points and they were harassed by local officers.

In 1651, Shah Shuja (son of Shah Jahan) made a firman by which the company was granted the right to trade in lieu of rupees 3000 annually.

In 1656, another firman (declaration) was passed by which the goods going to the British factories or coming out of it will be exempted from toll tax and those goods shall not be opened.

In 1672, the company obtained a firman from Shaista Khan (governor of Bengal) by which they were exempted of duties.

In 1680, Aurangzeb issued a firman, according to which, not to trouble Britishers for tax and no obstacle should be imposed on their trade. He also ordered a Jizya of 1.5% apart from 2% of toll tax on the goods of the Britishers. But the agents of company could not escape from the demands of the officials. Troubled by the local officials, Britishers changed their policy and decided to defend themselves by the use of power and they planned for fortified settlement in Hoogli so that offensive could be launched when required.

In August 1682, a group of delegates under the leadership of William Hadges (first English governor of Bengal) was sent to the Mughal Subedar so as to put an end to the forced toll tax, but they failed.

In 1686, the Mughals attacked Hoogli and the Britishers revenged by occupying Mughal forts, Thana. But in the end , the Britishers were defeated and had to take shelter on an island, suffering from fever.

In 1687, Britishers got permission to return to Bengal after agreement with Job Charnauk.

In 1690, Job Charnauk built a mansion in Sutanty that led the foundation of the future capital of English.

In 1691, Ibrahim Khan issued a firman by which the Britishers were exempted from toll tax on paying rupees 3000 annually. The Britishers got the permission for the fortification of Sutanty mansion in 1696 in the name of protection against the Jamindar of Burdwan, Shobha Singh.

In 1698, east India Company were given the Zamindari of Sutanaty, Kalikata and Govindpur in lieu of rupees 1200, this team came to be known as Fort William and the Presidency and council were established here.

In 1700, the factories of Bengal were placed under Fort William and Charles Iyer became the first President of Fort William. In Fort William, the Britishers had the right both on the British and Indian subjects. On the British subject as per the English laws and on the Indians by the virtue of Zamindar.

The prosperity beyond expectation of the company made the enemies in England and they start objecting company's monopoly. In 1694, the House of Common passed a resolution that all the citizen of England had the equal right to trade in India. After the resolution, two companies were formed in 1698: General Society and English Company of Merchants. These companies became the competitor of East India Company and it send William Nauris to the court of Aurangzeb in order to get some commercial facilities. These companies decided to merge in 1702 and finally merged in 1707-08.

In 1715, a group of representatives were sent to the Mughal court for securing the trading monopoly over the whole Mughal empire and to get some villages near Calcutta. This delegation was led by John Sumon and was assisted by Edward Stephenson and a surgeon called William Hamilton and an interpreter Khwaja Sehurd (Mughal emperor during that time was Farukshiyar). Hamilton saved Farukshiyar from a chronic desease, please by this he issued a firman in 1717, by which,

1) East India Company had not to pay any tax other than the annual tax of rupees 3000.

2) East India Company was allowed to acquire land on rent near Calcutta.

3) The exemption of tax in Hyderabad was maintained.

4) East India Company had to pay rent in Madras.

5) The coins of the company minted in Mumbai were allowed to be circulated throughout India.

Orme has called this firman of Farukshiyar as 'Magna Carta' of the company.

East India Company

31st December 1600 marked the beginning of commercial prosperity when the East India company earlier known as "Merchant Adventurer" was given trading rights with India for 15 years. 

The first Effort begun in 1600 when captain William Hawkins was sent with a letter of James I in the court of Akbar (but reached in the court of Jahangir). Hawkins was welcomed nicely but he could not establish factory because of Portuguese opposition. Hawkins left Agra in 1611. In the beginning of 1613, Jahangir issued a firman by which the English were allowed to establish a permanent factory in Surat. James I sent another ambassador, Saint Thomas to the Mughal Court with the objective of signing a commercial treaty. St. Thomas was in the court of Jahangir from December 1615 to the end of 1618, but he could not succeed in forming a treaty with Mughal emperor. Sir Thomas Row left India in November 1618.

Charles II
In 1668, Charles II gave Bombay to East India Company on the annual rent of 10 pound and thus Bombay became more important place than Surat in 1687.

In 1611, the Britishers established a factory at Masulipatnam on the South Eastern coast (it was the main seaport of Golkunda state). From this area, textiles were purchased and exported to Persia, but due to the Dutch opposition in 1627 another factory was established at Armagaon.

In 1632, the Sultan of Golkunda gave Britishers a golden firman, according to which they could trade freely from the port by giving 500 pagoda tax annually.

In 1633, factories were opened in Hariharpur and Balasaur in North East of Mahanadi.

In 1639, Francis Dey took Madras on lease from the ruler of Chandragiri. Fort of St. George was built in here and it became the headquarter of the settlement of Coromondal coast.

In 1651, Mr. Bridgeman opened a factory in Hoogli.

In 1658, Bengal, Bihar, Orisaa and Coromondal coast factories were placed under St. George fort.

Gradually the company changed its policy , instead of peaceful trading it started trying to establish its dominance by means of territorial expansion and it gained success due to political weakness of India.

Advent of the Dutch

In 1583, Linsanton came to Goa and route a book on the sea routes of the eastern world. This book was published in 1595.

Dutch East India Company
In 1602, Dutch East India Company was established by merging several companies, it was given the right to trade,war, treaty and conquest in India for 21 years. Establishments in India were:

1605 - Masulipatnam

1610 - Pulicat

1616 - Surat

1653 - Chinsura

1658 - Patna, Kasimbazar

1663 - Cochin

The Indigo produced in the central India reached Dutch from Surat and raw silk, woolen cloth, opium, salt peter and rice were exported from Bengal, Bihar and Coromondal.

In 1619, Negapatnam became the principle centre of Dutch on the Coromondal coast.
In 1661, a treaty was signed between the Kings of Portuguese and England (Charles II). In this treaty, Charles II got Bombay as dowry along with Catherine Bragenja and in return Charles II promised to help Portuguese against Dutch. (Bahadur Shah of Gujarat had gifted Bombay to Nunha Da Kunha).

The Dutch on the one hand expelled Portuguese out of the overseas trade in India and on the other hand gave new direction to the Indian trade. The Dutch gave importance to cloth instead of spices. In Modern age, the making of Indian textile credit goes to Dutch.

Decline of Portuguese

Several internal and external factors were responsible for its decline in India. Portuguese was a small country and it lacked in man power, also death rate during travel was more than 60%, Religious intolerance made various Indian super powers their enemies.

After the discovery of Brazil, the colonial activities of Portuguese shifted towards west. Other reasons include the auctioning of administrative posts and maltrade practices.

Impact of Portuguese Trade on Indian trade

The Portuguese overseas empire was named as "Estado Da India" and its initial objective was to establish monopoly over trade of Black Pepper and spices of the East. Portuguese used force to earn money, for which they used unique methods such as,

1) forced the Asian traders and ships to pay security duties.

2) the security tax charged by Portuguese for the sea route under their control was known as Cartaze. Under this system, each ship had to purchase entry pass from the Portuguese viceroy.

Indian trade with Japanese was a contribution of Portuguese (Copper and Bronze were imported from Japan).

Several words of Portuguese language are found in Indian language such as Kamraa, Kameej and Kunji. Tobacco, Maize, Potato, Papaya, Guvava, Alfanso Mango, Hukka and cultivation of Cauliflower are all the contribution of Portuguese.

Catholic Christianity in India was also brought by Poruguese.

In 1565, Portuguese established the first printing machine in India and the first book printed was on medicinal plants.

Advent of Portuguese

On May 20, 1498, a Portuguese navigator Vasco De Gama reached the shores of India(with the help of Gujarati trader Abdul Mamid Qadir) with a fleet of four ships and 118 sailors at Calicut ( Europeans called Calicut as Kappad). He received friendly welcome from the Calicut Hindu ruler Zamorin.

In March 1500, Petro Alvarez Gabriel led a fleet of 13 ships from Lisbon to India. Now the Portuguese were seeking their establishment over the sea and started interfering in political conspiracy. They started forming alliance against Zamorin.

Vasco De Gama
In 1502, Vasco De Gama came to India as the leader of third voyage and established commercial centres (factories) at Calicut, Cochin, Kennanour. Cochin became the initial capital of Portuguese.

In 1505, Portuguese adopted a new policy according to which a governor was appointed for 3 years and Fransisco Almeida became first Portuguese governor, he received order of fortifying Kilw, Anjadweep, Cochin and Kennanour. He got the rights of war, treaty and regulation of trade.

In January 1508, Almeida defeated the allied forces of Egypt, Gujarat and Turkey near Chaul in a naval battle.

In 1509, Almeida defeated a Muslim fleet in another battle, this victory established the supremacy of Portuguese in Asian seas and Indian ocean converted into Portuguese ocean..

The next Portuguese governor, Albuquerqe established Portuguese state as a regional power in India. He
experienced that it was derogatory to maintain the existence of Portuguese factories on the mercy of Indian kings. He destroyed the Muslim powers. This plan was correct and it had following three stages:
Alfanso de Albuquerque
1) control over the Persian gulf and the Malabar coast.
2) establishment of headquarters on the Western coast.
3) destroying the Arab traders.

The first achievement of Albuquerqe was annexation of Goa from Adil Shahi Sultan of Bijapur (Feb 1510). The victory over Goa ascertain the supremacy of Portuguese navy over the South Western coast.

Albuquerqe promoted his countrymen to many Indian women in order to inhabit the permanent settlement of Portuguese in India. He established cordial relations with Krishna Dev Rai and made efforts for better relations with Bijapur, recruited Indians in the army and organised a trained army. He used to hate Muslims and this was his greatest weakness. (They used to call Muslims as Mure).

The successor of Albuquerqe , Nunho Da Kunha (1529-38) had extended the Portuguese trade towards the eastern coast by establishing ports at Saint Thome and Hoogli. He shifted the capital from Cochin to Goa in 1530.

Saint Zavier, a Christian saint, came to India in 1542.

Advent of the Europeans and the British

India has been famous all over the world since ancient times for its cultural heritage, economic prosperity and spiritual richness and had impressed many scholars and travelers from Europe and Asia. The intention of majority of the European travelers and traders was to find wealth, expand trade and spread Christianity which in course of time were transformed into objectives of political supremacy and colonialism.