Civil Disobedience Movement

The Congress executive was authorised to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement at Lahore session in 1929. The Congress working committee met in mid February at Sabarmati Ashram where Gandhi was given full authority with regard to Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhi submitted eleven points demand before the viceroy,Lord Irwin, of which he overlooked. Demands were :
1) 50% reduction in land revenue.
2) Abolition of salt tax and government monopoly on salt.
3) To fix rupee sterling exchange ratio.
4) Protection of indigenous textile industry.
5) 50% cut in military expenditure.
6) 50% reduction in expenditure of civil accomodation.
7) Total prohibition of intoxicants.
8) Release of all political prisoners.
9) Changes in Central Intelligence Department.
10) Changes in Arm Act.
11) Reservation of coastal shipping for Indians.

Starting of Civil Disobedience Movement :- Gandhi declared his intention about the future course before the viceroy and declared that he could break the salt law on the 11th of that month. Gandhi launched civil disobedience movement on 12th March 1930. On  12th March 1930, Gandhi proceeded on 240 mile march to Dandi along with 78 followers from Sabarmati ashram. Gandhi reached Dandi on 5th April 1930 and Dandi march ended on 6th April 1930 after breaking the salt law.

Program of Civil Disobedience Movement :-
~Violation of Salt law & British law/Government rules.
~Boycott of legal court, government colleges and government ceremonies,
~Stopping the payment of land revenue, rent and other taxes.
~Peaceful picketing of shops selling liquor and intoxicants.  
~Boycott of foreign goods and clothes.
~resignation from government posts.

(Non Co-operation Movement was launched for Swaraj whereas Civil Disobedience Movement aimed total independence).

Repression by the government :-The British tried repressive methods to curb this movement. On 21st May, about 25000 volunteers led by Sarojini Naidu,Imam Sahab and Mani Laal tour the factory of Dharsana, the government ordered lathi charge and they were beaten by iron rod. Web Miller, an American journalist provided first hand account of the struggle between satyagrahis and police in the magazine, New Freedom.

Shri Raj Gopalchari proceeded on Salt march from Trichannapali to Vedaranyam. K. Karappan, hero of Vaikom movement proceeded on Salt march from Calicut to Payannar. Jawahar Lal Nehru was arrested on 14 April 1930 for breaking Salt law. C. RajaGopalchari was arrested on 30 April 1930. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan popularly known as Frontier Gandhi also participated in this movement along with his organization, Khudai Khidmatgar or Red Shirt (Members of Khudai Khidmatgar used to wear red shirt).

Nagaland queen,Gidalu, revolted against British at the age of 13.
'No Tax,No revenue' movement was launched in Uttar Pradesh.
During Civil Disobedience Movement, Monkey movement was organized by boys and Manjari army by girls.

In June 1930, Congress and its associate organizations were declared illegal and all prominent leaders including Gandhi were arrested.

On July 9, 1930, Viceroy proposed Round Table Conference and dominion state for India. 

Lahore Conference (1929)

In December 1928 at the Calcutta Session, Congress passed the Nehru report with majority and gave ultimatum to British government to accept the report before 31 December 1929 otherwise congress would launch a fast/mass movement. The time period of one year passed without any response from the government.
(All India Youth Congress was formed at Calcutta session in 1928. Jawahar Lal Nehru was the first president.)

In December 1929, Nehru report was declared cancelled at Lahore session. Gandhi made Jawahar Lal Nehru president of Congress at Lahore session to check the growing influence of "leftist" on Congress. In the chairmanship of J.L. Nehru congress declared complete independence (Poorna Swaraj). On 31st December 1929 around midnight hosted the newly adopted national flag in Lahore on the bank of river Ravi. The Congress working committee decided to celebrate 26th January 1930 as the first independence day.

At the Lahore session, congress working committee was authorized to start Civil Disobedience Movement.

Gandhi rejected the proposal of Subhash Chandra Bose of forming parallel government. Then, Subhash Chandra Bose formed a new party, Congress Democratic Party.

Vaikom Movement

Upto 1917, the Congress kept refusing the issues related to social reform that sent wrong message among the people. Gandhi was the first national leader who raised issues of social reform. He gave priority to abolition of untouchability. In 1923 congress decided to take concrete step in abolishing untouchability.

Ezava and Pullaiyan had to maintain 16'' and 32'' distance respectivily. The intellectuals like Narayan Guru, N. Kumaran and T.K. Madhavan opposed the social evil like untouchability. This movement started from a village called Vaikom.

On 30th March 1924, a procession of higher caste and lower caste led by congress reached a temple violating the law of untouchability. The main   organization of higher caste that supported this satyagrah :1) Nayar Service Society. 2) Nayar Samajam 3) Keral Hindu Sabha 4) Yogakshem Sabha