Non Co-operation Movement (1920-22)

In 1920, Gandhi advised Khilafat committee to launch non violent non cooperation movement. On 9 June 1920 in Allahabad, the Khilafat committee accepted this proposal of Gandhi and handed over the leadership of this movement to Gandhi.

In May 1920, it was decided at All India Congress Committee meeting to boycott all foreign goods and schools and to organize a special session of Congress in September.
Gandhi started Non Cooperation movement from 1st August 1920. It was the first mass movement led by Gandhi. Bal Gangadhar Tilak died on the same day.

In September 1920, the special session of congress was organized in Calcutta under the presidentship of Lala Lajpat Rai. The session gave the approval of non cooperation movement despite the opposition from some senior leader like C. R. Das, he opposed to the boycott of Vidhan Parishad. Annie Besant, S.N. Bannerjee, Madan Mohan Malviya, M.A. Jinnah, B.C. Pal and Shankar Nayar also opposed. Ali Brother and M.L. Nehru supported non cooperation movement.
At the Nagpur session, Chittranjan Das and Lala Lajpat Rai withdrew their opposition that at Calcutta session. Gandhi declared, 'The British government must realize that if it does not want to do justice then destroying British empire shall be the duty of each and every Indian. Gandhi prepared a new constitution for congress and thereby changed the character of congress. The membership charge was reduced to 25 paise anually. Provincial congress committee was reorganised on linguistic basis. A 15 member executive was constituted to look after the routine work of congress (This proposal was also proposed by Tilak in 1916 but was not passed). Congress decided to use Hindi as far as possible , the language for communication.

The boycott of education was most successful in West Bengal. S.C. Bose was made the president of National College made during non cooperation movement.

After Nagpur session in 1920, four members quit congress:  M.A. Jinnah, Annie Besant, B.C. Pal and G.S. Khaparde.

Gandhi toured India during non cooperation movement, first with Ali Brothers and then Prabhu Das Gandhi.
Famous lawyers who left their practice during non cooperation movement were : C.R. Das (West Bengal), M.L. Nehru, Vallabh Bhai Patel and Vitthal Patel(Gujarat), C. Rajgopalchari, Saifuddin Kichlu, Arun Asaf  Ali, T. Prakasham and M. Jaykar.

Gandhi returned the title 'Kesar-i-Hind' before launching non cooperation movement. Jamunalal Bajaj returned the title 'Rai Bahadur'.

March 1921, in the Vijaywara session, Tilak Swaraj fund was organised for running the movement and more than 1 crore was collected.

May 1921, the Viceroy Lord Reading met Gandhi and asked him to convince Ali Brothers for not giving provocation speeches.

July 1921, Mohd Ali Jinnah declared that it will be against their religion if any Muslim serve the army.

On 5 February 1922, a procession of congress and Khilafat movement was organised at Chauri Chaura, Gorakhpur. People killed 22 police officers.

In February 1922, the Congress executive met at Bardoli where Gandhi declared discontinuation of non cooperation movement. This proposal is known as Bardoli resolution.

On 10 March 1922, Gandhi was arrested and sentenced to 6 years imprisonment but was released on 5 February 1924 due to health reasons.  

Khilafat Movement (1919-22)

The movement against Rowlatt Act in the backdrop of Lucknow pact effected each and every Indian that brought Hindus and Muslims together in the movement.

The Sultan of Turkey was considered to be the Khalifa of the whole Islamic world. After the defeat of Turkey in the First World War, all the rights of Sultan of Turkey was taken away by the 'Treaty of Sevrey'.

The All India Khilafat Committee was formed in Delhi on 23rd November 1919 by Mohd Ali and Shaukat Ali (Ali Brothers), Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Hakim Azmal Khan and Hazrat Mohani.

Gandhi presided over All India Khilafat committee on 23rd November 1919. This committee decided that if their demands were not accepted then they would stop cooperating with the government.

The Khilafat movement was supported by Congress at Amritsar session in December 1919. A delegation led by Dr. Ansari was sent to England on the proposal of Gandhi. In March 1920, a delegation led by Mohd Ali and Shaukat Ali went to England.

On 17 October 1919, Khilafat day was observed as all India day. Gandhi considered Khilafat movement as an opportunity to unite Hindus and Muslims. The Muslims invited Swami Shraddhanand to preach from the mimbar of Jama Masjid to set an example of Hindu-Muslim unity. Similarly , Sikhs in Amritsar handed over the keys of Golden temple to Muslim leader Dr, Saifuddin Kichlu.   

Satyagrah against Rowlatt Act (1919)

The British government constituted Rowlatt Act under the chairmanship of Sydney Rowlatt to curb the revolutionary activities. On the recommendation of Rowlatt Committee, two bills were introduced on 6 February 1919, but one of them was withdrawn. The second bill, Revolutionary and Terrorism Act was passed in March 1919. These acts were called as Rowlatt Act. On 8 March 1919, Rowlatt Act was passed despite the protest by Indian people. Rowlatt Act is also known as 'Black Law'.

On 24 May 1919, Satyagrah sabha was constituted in Bombay by Gandhi and was himself its chairman. 6 April 1919 was fixed as the day for starting Rowlatt Satygrah and this day was observed as 'National Insult Day'.

Swami Shraddhanand was leading the movement against Rowlatt act in Delhi. The movement opposing Rowlatt act was very popular in Punjab. Gandhi tried to visit Punjab to check the violent people but the government did not allowed him to enter Punjab and sent him back to Bombay. In such a situation, the anger of the people further increased when Lt. Governor , Michael O Dyer arrested the two very popular leaders, Dr. Satpal and Saifuddin Kichlu, without any reason on 9 April 1919.

10 Aprl 1919, administration called military and handed over the administration of Punjab to General Dyer.

11 April 1919, Marshall law was declared in Amritsar under the command of General Dyer and he banned public meeting.

13 April 1919, on the day of Baisakhi, a public meeting was organised in Jalianwala Bagh to oppose the arrest of Dr. Satpal and Saifuddin Kichlu. General Dyer declared it unconstitutional and opened fire on public. According to government report, 379 people were killed.

C. F. Andrews termed this incident as 'Deliberate Merciless Killing'. Sankaran, Indian member of viceroys, executively resigned. Rabindra Nath Tagore returned the title of 'Sir' after this incident .

15 April 1919, Marhall law was imposed over the whole of Punjab.

19 April 1919, Gandhi called off Rowlatt Satyagrah.

The government constituted Hunter committee to inquire about this incident. The Hunter committee was constituted on 1 October 1919 under the chairmanship of Lord Hunter. There were 8 members in this committee including 3 Indians (Sir Chimmanlal SItalwad, Sahebjada Sultan Ahmed and Jagat Narayan). The Congress also constituted a committee under Madan Mohan Malviya. Motilal Nehru and Gandhi were other members. Hunter committe submitted its report in March 1920.