Third Phase of National Movement (1917-47) - Gandhian Era

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar in Kathiawar in Gujarat.

Gandhi went to South Africa in 1893 as lawyer of Dada Abdullah & Co.. In 1893, he founded "Indian National Organization and started a magazine called "Indian Opinion". Gandhi planned to return after hearing of the case, in the evening before return he raised the issue of bill excluding Indians of the right to vote. The Indians settled in South Africa requested him to prolong his return by one month and provide leadership of the movement against the bill. Gandhi decided to stay and was there for 20 years.

In 1906, Gandhi started Disobedience movement  which was known as Satyagrah movement, thus he launched first Satyagrah movement in South Africa.

Gandhi established Tolstoy firm and Phoenix firm, Tolstoy latter became Gandhi Ashram. Ratan Tata, Muslim League, Congress and Nizam of Hyderabad provided economic support to Gandhi Ashram.

On 1st Jan 1915, he was awarded with Kesar-i- Hind gold medal for supporting England in First World war.

Gandhi returned to India in 1915. He made Gopal krishna Gokhale as his political mentor. He  met Rabindra Nath Tagore at the end of 1915 in Golpur, West Bengal,  here Tagore called Gandhi as Mahatma and Gandhi callled Tagore as Gurudev.

In 1916, Gandhi founded Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad.
Gandhi did not take part in Home Rule Movement.
Between 1917 and 1918, Gandhi took part in three main events : Champaran Satyagrah, Ahmedabad Movement and Khera Satyagrah. Gandhi had  three other main objectives along with the struggle for freedom : Hindu Muslim unity, untouchability abolition and improving social conditions of women.