Advent of Portuguese

On May 20, 1498, a Portuguese navigator Vasco De Gama reached the shores of India(with the help of Gujarati trader Abdul Mamid Qadir) with a fleet of four ships and 118 sailors at Calicut ( Europeans called Calicut as Kappad). He received friendly welcome from the Calicut Hindu ruler Zamorin.

In March 1500, Petro Alvarez Gabriel led a fleet of 13 ships from Lisbon to India. Now the Portuguese were seeking their establishment over the sea and started interfering in political conspiracy. They started forming alliance against Zamorin.

Vasco De Gama
In 1502, Vasco De Gama came to India as the leader of third voyage and established commercial centres (factories) at Calicut, Cochin, Kennanour. Cochin became the initial capital of Portuguese.

In 1505, Portuguese adopted a new policy according to which a governor was appointed for 3 years and Fransisco Almeida became first Portuguese governor, he received order of fortifying Kilw, Anjadweep, Cochin and Kennanour. He got the rights of war, treaty and regulation of trade.

In January 1508, Almeida defeated the allied forces of Egypt, Gujarat and Turkey near Chaul in a naval battle.

In 1509, Almeida defeated a Muslim fleet in another battle, this victory established the supremacy of Portuguese in Asian seas and Indian ocean converted into Portuguese ocean..

The next Portuguese governor, Albuquerqe established Portuguese state as a regional power in India. He
experienced that it was derogatory to maintain the existence of Portuguese factories on the mercy of Indian kings. He destroyed the Muslim powers. This plan was correct and it had following three stages:
Alfanso de Albuquerque
1) control over the Persian gulf and the Malabar coast.
2) establishment of headquarters on the Western coast.
3) destroying the Arab traders.

The first achievement of Albuquerqe was annexation of Goa from Adil Shahi Sultan of Bijapur (Feb 1510). The victory over Goa ascertain the supremacy of Portuguese navy over the South Western coast.

Albuquerqe promoted his countrymen to many Indian women in order to inhabit the permanent settlement of Portuguese in India. He established cordial relations with Krishna Dev Rai and made efforts for better relations with Bijapur, recruited Indians in the army and organised a trained army. He used to hate Muslims and this was his greatest weakness. (They used to call Muslims as Mure).

The successor of Albuquerqe , Nunho Da Kunha (1529-38) had extended the Portuguese trade towards the eastern coast by establishing ports at Saint Thome and Hoogli. He shifted the capital from Cochin to Goa in 1530.

Saint Zavier, a Christian saint, came to India in 1542.

Advent of the Europeans and the British

India has been famous all over the world since ancient times for its cultural heritage, economic prosperity and spiritual richness and had impressed many scholars and travelers from Europe and Asia. The intention of majority of the European travelers and traders was to find wealth, expand trade and spread Christianity which in course of time were transformed into objectives of political supremacy and colonialism.